Course Description:

Optical fiber’s huge potentials still remains to be fully harnessed. To this effect the optical networking marketplace is poised to grow. This course provides participants with the knowledge of the optical networking marketplace, corollary technologies, solutions and applications.  Topics covered include a detailed analysis of  fiber types (step-index & graded-index), fiber modes (single & multi-mode), fiber fabrication, loss mechanisms,   light-emission processes in semiconductors, light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, modulation response, source-fiber coupling, photodetectors, receivers, receiver noise and sensitivity, system design, power budget and rise-time budget, fiber-optic networks (FDDI, SDH), wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM, WDM, DWDM).

Who will Benefit:

New entrants, current and aspiring technical personnel, including IT staff, corporate decision makers, consultants and students will find this course valuable.  It is especially useful for engineers involved in telecommunications design as well as those involved in installation and testing fiber optics.

Prerequisites:

A general understanding of telecommunications is desirable.

Technical Level:

Mode of Delivery:

Instructor led classes, multi-media simulations, demonstrations, videos and tutorial exercise.

 

• Explore the physical properties of fiber in terms of refraction, dispersion and attenuation
• Conduct a link budget for an optical fiber link and estimate the spacing between two repeaters
• Examine how fiber optic cables spliced and terminated
• Compare and contrast the different optical light sources
• Identify the role of testing equipment in fiber optic systems
• Explore the technologies that are based on fiber optic transport
• Step through the fusion splicing procedure
• Identify the different ways FO cable is installed
• Describe how DWDM enhances fiber optic capacity
• Identify DWDM implementation challenges

  • Optical Fiber Characteristics
    • Propagation of light waves
    • Refractive index and Snell’s law
    • Optical dielectric wave guide
    • Construction of FO cable
    • Numerical Aperture
    • Single and multi-mode fibers
    • Dispersion-modal, material and chromatic
    • Signal attenuation and attenuation coefficient
    • Macro and micro bending loss
    • Optical fiber cut off wavelength
  • Optical Sources
    • Light emitting diodes (LEDs)
    • LASER sources
    • Laser power classifications
    • Fabry-Perot laser (FPL)
    • Distributed feedback (DFB) laser
    • Vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)
    • External cavity laser (ECL)
    • Laser efficiency, reliability
    • Safety aspects
    • Chirp
  • Optical Detectors
    • Detector properties
    • Responsively
    • Speed of response
    • Sensitivity of receiver
    • PIN Photodiode
    • Avalanche Photo Diode (APD)
    • Noise and BER
  • Optical Networks
    • Basic fiber optic telecommunication link
    • Link budget
    • Regenerators
    • Optical amplifiers
    • Multiplexing standards (PDH, SDH, SONET)
    • Typical optical rings
    • Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
  • Fiber Optical Cabling
    • Cable designs
    • Splicing – mechanical and fusion
    • Fusion splicing machine
    • Core misalignment
    • FO Connectors and terminations
  • Cable installation Options
    • Submarine cable
    • Ducted cable
    • Plenum cable
    • Optical ground wire (OPGW)
    • Aerial cable
    • Interior low-impact installation
  • Testing and Measurements
    • Optical power meter
    • Laser source
    • Optical attenuator
    • Optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR)
  • WDM & DWDM
    • CWDM, WDM and DWDM
    • DWDM wavelengths
    • Increasing bandwidth
    • DWDM passive components
    • Dispersion compensators
    • Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs)
    • DWDM Impairments
    • Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)
    • Noise, Dispersion, Non-linearities
    • Four Wave Mixing (FWM)
    • Self-phase Modulation (SPM)
    • Cross-phase Modulation (XPM)
    • Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS)